Each day, I begin my ELA class with Reading Time. This is a time for students to access a range of texts. I use this time to conference with students, collect data on class patterns and trends with independent reading and to provide individualized support.
Moving from defining and reviewing examples of paraphrasing and summarizing, students will now work on identifying how to cite their sources in their research papers. This gives students a chance to practice this work and also allows them to begin to make decisions as to what needs to be cited in the hopes that they will learn the valuable skill of avoiding plagiarism. Some students think everything needs to be cited so this lesson really breaks it down for them.
To begin the lesson, I pull up the Plagiarism, Paraphrasing, Etc. PowerPoint and review slide 7: What needs to be cited. Here is an image of the chart on slide 7: What needs to be cited? Chart. This graph gives students a visual way to think about the information they have from their sources, information they have in their outline, and also from their notecards. As the graph is on the Smartboard I explain to students what each part means and take them through how to use it. They begin by asking if the information is exact words then they move on to determine if it's a writer's ideas. This helps them to ask specific questions to avoid plagiarism. This video explains how to use the chart: Cite It Chart Explanation. Students are very visual so giving them this kind of tool really helps them to learn the skill of proper citation.
I tell students not to copy it down yet. I want to explain it fully so students can see the full picture. Most of them listen. After I explain, I ask if there any questions. Most of the questions are usually around why. It's great when students are curious but the tricky part is explaining to them why certain information needs to be cited. That can be a challenge.
After we review the chart, I then have them write the chart down in their notebooks. I tell them to refer to it often throughout the process of writing the research paper. Thankfully my students are terrified of plagiarism so this is a great tool for them to hold on to.
After students understand how and when to cite, the next step is practice. It is incredibly important that students understand when and how before they start to do it. They will begin the process completely lost if they don't understand the previous section of the lesson. So make sure you monitor the class before beginning this part of the lesson. While the rest of the lesson is devoted to practice, this time can also be spent to review citation if students are still not grasping it. You can differentiate instruction by allowing some students to practice and review citation with others.
For this section I keep up the Plagiarism, Paraphrasing, Etc. PowerPoint and review the directions on slide 8 (Slide 8 Screenshot), which has students review their outlines and look for the moments where they need to cite their sources and the moments where they do not. I tell students to look at their outlines and either highlight or create a chart of what to cite and what not to cite. By doing this, they will be able to go back into their research sources and determine what needs to be cited and what does not. Another great strategy is to help students, perhaps those who are higher-level, to determine if the information they have in their outline that needs to be cited will be best used as a paraphrase, a summary, or a direct quotation.
Here is a student example of that work highlighting places where citation will be needed: Outline Highlighted For Citing Student Example
As a teacher, I support students during this by circulating around the classroom and checking in with them. I can see their work and determine if they are doing this correctly. If they are not, I may need to review the chart with them again, in particular the difference between common knowledge and an author's original idea.
Another way to support students is through a chart like this: Citing Chart On Whiteboard. Seeing examples will allow students to start making decisions for their own work.
For individual support I refer students back to the Research Booklet and refer specifically to page 12, which refers how to structure citations within writing (and here is a screenshot of that: Citing Screenshot). This allows students to begin working on in-text citations.