An effective meeting, or any group activity such as a classroom discussion, requires more than publishing an agenda. To support the purpose of the gathering, and honor its participants, it is important to collaboratively establish norms for group behaviors. They are the "secret sauce" to a productive meeting. There are a variety of protocols that support the norming process, some of which are included in this strategy. All of them, however, adhere to value that the expectations need to be created by the group. Slowing down to review, select, and then implement a norming protocol is a critical, and primary step in organizing for effort.
Use this Protocol for Creating Norms from learningforward.org or create your own. Keep in mind that the purpose of the protocol is to insure that everyone have a voice..
Introduce the norming protocol as part of the purpose of the initial meeting, or introduce the norming protocol to the class with a stated purpose for the norms. For example, tell students that the community is thinking through how they should work and speak with each other during partner and small group work.
Share the chosen protocol with the group. Take the time to allow everyone to read it (reason to keep it simple and short) or for you to unpack it collaboratively with the group.
Follow the chosen protocol process to elicit suggestions for norms.
Note all suggestions. Try not to discourage repetitive suggestions.
Organize the norms to eliminate repeated suggestions, and to create clear expectations for specific elements of the work such as speaking, participating, etc.. This can be done by the group if this helps clarify, or if the suggestions are straightforward the group leader can organize independently. It is important to stay true to the group's intended suggestions.
Display and discuss the norms prior to meetings.
Norms for group work behaviors transform student discussions because the norms create clear expectations for all members of the group. To create that understanding, as well as buy-in, students should be at the center of the discussion that creates the norms. The teacher can use questions and wonderings to guide the process. Once discussed and established, it is important to display them where all can see, and to proactively return to reviewing the norms prior to group activities.
Set the purpose for the discussion about norms. For example, students will be working in lab groups. I need to establish safety, work responsibilities, discussion norms. To make sure these are useful for more than one purpose, I'm going to break this into two separate discussions, done at different times. Safety is a separate topic. I'll focus on group work and discussion.
Make your own list of what behaviors you want to students to address. This is not intended for student use, it is to help you remember what you want to cover during the student discussion.
Introduce the purpose to students.
Invite students to make suggestions on the ways we support each other to ____. This list needs to be located in a place where all can see, the suggestions students make. Don't edit and try not to discourage students who may be offering repetitive suggestions. You are not only eliciting their ideas, you are encouraging everyone to be a participant.
If needed, use guiding questions and wonderings to get students to dig more deeply. For example, I'm wondering what would be an example of a not helpful suggestion?
With student input, group the ideas into categories. This makes it easier to create a short list of norms.
Rewrite the norms and display/share with students.
Proactively return to these norms prior to group work.
Debrief the norms; initially do so every time. Thereafter, debrief periodically and as needed. Be open to reviewing to revise the norms if needed.
For more information, explore this article on Norms from Classroom Culture.
Even in a distance environment, shared norms are essential to establishing safe, respectful and productive learning communities. In a distance setting, shared norms still address desired behaviors but also include the unique features and restrictions of the learning environment.
Use existing norms as a framework if already established. Reflect on which norms have been effective and can stay in place for distance learning and which norms should be revisited. Use the following steps to include considerations for varied remote environments.
During a synchronous distance learning session, generate suggestions for what is needed for productive group work. Try to resist editing or discouraging repetitive suggestions. Students can add to a shared Google Doc or a Padlet. Otherwise, a facilitator can share their screen while they note down all suggestions. The goal is to be able to manipulate the suggestions later into groups.
To modify this for asynchronous setting, allow for more time for ideas to be submitted. Create a central location where everyone can see and react or comment on all the ideas at a later time. Use question prompts to guide students to make suggestions based on categories such as communication, organization, time management. Use the questions in the next step as a guide.
On Padlet, use the shelf style to create columns for each question or category. Enable reactions or commenting ability so that group members can reinforce ideas that they agree with.
On Jamboard, create one board per question or category. Students can use the sticky notes to share their suggestions and ideas.
For those with limited technology, group texts can be established to share ideas. Teachers should be included in group texts and set parameters for appropriate use of the messages.
While generating suggestions from students as to what should be the group work norms for a distance learning setting, consider the following questions:
How can we best communicate in a distance setting? Acknowledge the potential distractions such as multitasking, video off, background noise, etc. and have students gather suggestions on how to overcome these challenges.
How can we be understanding of each other's limitations? This includes time, technology, and wellbeing. Encourage members to share any limitations they may have so that the group is aware and can consider these.
How will we organize our materials?
How will we address technological glitches and problems?
When and how will we communicate? This is logistical consideration of time and tools.
Organize the suggestions in categories. Use input from members, by allowing them time to identify their categories and sharing, or allow them to suggest while you group the ideas. Use Padlet or Jamboard to create columns or slides for each category that group members identify.
Rewrite the norms as clear expectations of each identified category. Communication, participation, respect, etc.
In an asynchronous setting, you may need to do this without the members present, but you should be sure to stay true to their suggestions. Share the proposed norms with the groups in a shared Google Doc. Enable suggestions in order to allow students to comment and suggest changes before making a final version.
While students are engaging in synchronous group work, display these norms where members can see them. This can be as a virtual background, in agendas, emails, or as a visual at the beginning of each meeting.
To modify for a low tech environment, encourage members to establish norms with their families and create a display. They can take a picture and share these as well.
Creating and implementing norms in a classroom helps create and sustain effective and inclusive learning communities to support all students with disabilities. In particular, it is a crucial tool in supporting students with emotional and behavioral impairments learn and practice skills necessary to fully engage in learning in a traditional classroom setting. In order to create effective classroom norms, consider the following modifications:
Teacher knowledge of student disabilities is a key way to develop effective classroom norms. Before finalizing positive reinforcement economy tools, teachers should consult with special education department administrators or specialized learning facilitators for information on specific disability types. They should ensure they are clear on IEP goals and requirements and how they present in a classroom. See the "19 Big and Small Classroom Management Strategies | Edutopia" resource in the resource section below for more information.
Given the number of students with disabilities in a classroom and the intensity of their needs, a teacher may consider building in more time to more explicitly teach specific classroom norms. In particular, teachers should ensure building in role-playing and feedback opportunities for the first few times teaching new classroom norms or procedures.
If multiple teachers are present, careful thought should be put into how they can be used to support students who may struggle with specific classroom norms.
Developing and using norms is a useful way to ensure all group work is inclusive and fruitful. Including learners in the development of classroom norms will increase buy-in.
English learners need to listen and contribute verbally to norming conversations. Learners may also need to read and write to prepare for these conversations. In order to support English Learners consider the following modifications:
Ensure English learners participate in norming conversations. For learners at lower levels of language proficiency, preview the topic of norm-setting in advance. Provide sentence stems, e.g., I think ____ is important because ____, for entering the discussion. Give learners opportunity to write down their thoughts in advance. Establish a signal, like tapping on a desk, so learners know they have a strong idea that you will call on them to share. Consider partnering with learners’ language specialist to preview the concept of norming. See the "Preparing for Norm Setting Class Discussion Template" resource in the resource section below.
Provide models. English learners benefit from knowing what norms may look like. Use previous class norms, images found online or a learning facilitator created list. Consider creating categories in advance that learners work with to guide norm development, e.g., listening norms, response norms, disagreement norms. See the "4 Ls of Productive Partnering" in the resource section below for more information.
Ensure English learners understand all norms that are established, e.g., ask for learners to restate norms in a 1:1 or small group setting, or use a response protocol (See the Response Protocol in the resource section below for more information). Based on observations during group work where norms are applied, check for learner understanding again. Post norms on the walls with visual anchors and refer to them often.
Are there members of the learning community (children and adults alike) who may have emotional or physical barriers to what the group might define as full participation? If so, how will you insure that their needs are represented fairly and appropriately?
How can you support your learning community to internalize the norms positively?
What activities could you add to the initial norming process, and to the initial attempts to use the norms, that would support participants to be more aware of their own, and their group's, behaviors?
It is easy, in a time-compressed environment, to want to get something done and over with. Slowing down that process can feel like a waste of time. However, norms are worth the time and effort. They are the group's agreement with one another, and therefore are not imposed on any member of the group. This has a positive impact on group work.
Remember to facilitate the introduction and development of norms, rather than lead it. A facilitator is not pushing an agenda but instead is ensuring that all voices are heard, and that agreements that everyone can abide by are reached.
Google docs are electronic documents that can be shared within an entire community.
Using a shared Google Doc provides the entire group a readily accessible copy of the norms at all times. If settings are set so that members of the group can add comments, the norms can also be a document that can be returned to as a work in progress, to revise and improve. A Google doc can also be reproduced by each owner, and connected to a personal / group reflection process that is automatic, memorialized, and cumulative over time.
Norming is a critical element of creating and supporting efficient, fair, collaborative meetings. It does originate, however, with the idea that there are "shared" ideas of what and how a group should and could interact. Just as we know that our students come to us with their learning and skills in different places, so too do the members of a team or group. Prior to norming, unwrapping our assumptions of what is given and expected in our collaboration allows all members of the community to not only understand how others value and see participation, but also reminds us that the voice of the community is as important as the results of their work. The resources included here should be integrated into the norms process described above, and are particularly recommended for a deeply divided group, a community taking on the important work of tackling the critical topic of systematic racism and how the school can identify those levers, so that the community can then address them.
Review Beginning Courageous Conversations about Race. Note the "Four Agreements," as these are the additions that should be added to the norming process. These agreements are summarized in this document, which should be included with the suggested materials to be provided to participants. However, it is important that the leaders all read the full article. Guiding questions for a leadership group discussion are included here, but should be modified to meet the needs of the leadership team. In addition, we strongly recommend that two additional agreements are included:
Assume best intentions and take responsibility for impact. This is an important agreement, and needs explaining. It is often the case that a behavior that arises in a difficult or challenging conversation is considered by the group, and its facilitator, as not intended. Can a person be faulted if their intent in saying something hurtful or controversial was a good one? Let's test this relatively common social norm with an analogy (from How "Good Intent" Undermines Diversity and Inclusion). If I step on your foot, does it matter if I meant to? It still hurts. And if your foot is being stepped on, deliberately and without the intent to hurt, does it change how it feels for you? So when we do not self examine where our "intent" is coming from, we are are not taking ownership for its impact.
Avoid detours. When someone shares something that is uncomfortable to discuss, it's tempting to deflect with something else to think about instead of addressing the uncomfortable issue. This stops progress, discourages risk taking and honesty.
What is the intent in making a particular point?
Are you present and listening?
Does this need immediate action?
Does this contribute to what we are discussing?
Speak your truth. Do so with care for others.
Monitor whether you are present, and listening.
Be open about emotions. Name yours, and help others to do the same.